The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.
And SDG 11 is about sustainable cities and communities.
SDG 11. Sustainable cities and communities
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
11.1 Ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums
11.2 Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport
11.3 Enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanisation and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries
11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
11.5 Significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters
11.6 Reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management
11.7 Provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces
Sustainable-city development in Malaysia
Country and Sustainable Cities Overview
Accoridng to Deloitte report, In Malaysia, more than 74% of population lives in cities and over 90% of national economic activity is conducted in cities.
During 2010-2015, the total population grew at an annual rate of more than 1.8 % per annum where urban growth was around 2.66 %. It is predicted that urbanization will further outpace population growth so that by 2030 about 82% of the population will live in urban areas.
Challenges in Malaysia
Malaysia are also faced with numerous climate change challenges that threaten the ability of these urban areas to become viable pillars of sustainable development.
The rapid increase in GHG emissions in cities has been further aggravated by:
- rapid urbanization and industrialization (7% per annum),
- relatively high carbon intensity dependence on fossil fuels and coal, and
- poor public transportation system and
- high demand of mobility caused rapid increase of cars compared to population growth.